Banking laws post dating checks

The jurist Sextus Pomponius said, "At the beginning of our city, the people began their first activities without any fixed law, and without any fixed rights: all things were ruled despotically, by kings".The first legal text is the Law of the Twelve Tables, dating from the mid-5th century BC. Terentilius Arsa, proposed that the law should be written, in order to prevent magistrates from applying the law arbitrarily.Before the Twelve Tables (754–449 BC), private law comprised the Roman civil law (ius civile Quiritium) that applied only to Roman citizens, and was bonded to religion; undeveloped, with attributes of strict formalism, symbolism, and conservatism, e.g.the ritual practice of mancipatio (a form of sale).Many laws include Lex Canuleia (445 BC; which allowed the marriage—ius connubii—between patricians and plebeians), Leges Licinae Sextiae (367 BC; which made restrictions on possession of public lands — ager publicus — and also made sure that one of the consuls was plebeian), Lex Ogulnia (300 BC; plebeians received access to priest posts), and Lex Hortensia (287 BC; verdicts of plebeian assemblies — plebiscita — now bind all people).

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In Germany, Roman law practice remained in place longer under the Holy Roman Empire (963–1806).

Many scholars consider it unlikely that the patricians sent an official delegation to Greece, as the Roman historians believed.

Instead, those scholars suggest, the Romans acquired Greek legislations from the Greek cities of Magna Graecia, the main portal between the Roman and Greek worlds.

A second decemvirate is said to have added two further tablets in 449 BC.

The new Law of the Twelve Tables was approved by the people's assembly.

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